‘bread’, ‘white clay, flour’,

easy way to type it:  gallaX

Lolly Metcalf’s South Slough Milluk

Americanist Phonetic


(1) [ gál·ax̣ ],

  then tokens (2) and partial (3), then

[ gál·ax̣ ]  

[ ˈɡɑlˑɑχ ],

 then tokens (2) and partial (3), then  

[ ˈɡɑlˑɑχ ]

A Heavy Pronunciation of an Ejective:  Lolly’s first time saying the word and her last time saying the word are the pronunciations to imitate.  We count a cut-off token of the word as her third time saying the word in our table of transcriptions.  For each of her pronunciations of this word, Lolly has what we call a ‘heavy pronunciation’ of the first consonant of this word which is an ejective in Annie’s Milluk.  This is to say that Lolly says a voiced stop consonant at the begining of this word which is otherwise an ejective.  

Instant Phonetic Englishization:  gahl_lahh. 

Two Sound Correspondences: Annie Miner Peterson’s version of the word begins with an ejective which also differs by being a uvular consonant.  This is one of several examples of a sound correspondence where a Coos Bay Milluk velar consonant corresponds to a uvular consonant in Mrs. Peterson’s Milluk.  So we have two regular sound correspondences here between Lolly’s Coos Bay Milluk and Annie’s Milluk.  There is the velar-uvular sound correspondence and the voiced stop consonant versus ejective sound correspondence.  

A Different Sound Correspondence: Annie’s Hanis word | qʼáʔlax̣ | ‘white clay’, ‘flour’ shows a completely different sound correspondence to her Milluk word | qʼál·ax̣ | ‘white clay’, ‘flour’.  That is a sound correspondence of Hanis [ ʔl ] to Milluk [ lˑ ], which is to say between glottal stop plus L to Long L.  However, Annie’s Hanis word | qʼáʔlax̣ | ‘white clay’, ‘flour’ does not participate in either of the two Milluk-internal sound correspondences between the two versions of the Milluk word meaning ‘white clay’, ‘flour’, and ‘bread’.  To see another example of the sound correspondence of Hanis [ ʔl ] to Milluk [ lˑ ], see the interview segment “Blue”. 

for AMP:  


Annie Miner Peterson’s Milluk

Exactly Jacobs’ transcription

Americanist Phonetic & IPA


[ qʼál·ax̣


[ ˈqʼalˑɑχ ]

Where the Uvular Consonants in Words Such as This Must Have Come From: Annie learned Milluk at a very early age from her maternal grandmother who was from a village on the Lower Coquille River, so we have to imagine that it was Lower Coquelle Milluk that had uvular consonants in words such as this.