‘be cold’,

   easy way to type it:    gaina

Lolly Metcalf’s South Slough Milluk

Americanist Phonetic


[ gáina ],


[ gáina ]

[ ˈgɑinɑ ],


[ ˈgɑinɑ ]

Instant Phonetic Englishization:  Like the English word ‘guy’ plus nah, for Lolly’s version of the word.   

The a-æ Sound Correspondence: The sound correspondence of Lolly’s / a / corresponding to Annie’s / æ / can also be seen in the tables of transcription for the interview segments “Shoes”, “Teeth”, and “Tongue”.  The Milluk word meaning ‘tooth, teeth’ has the correspondence with just the plain vowel.  The other examples in the interview segments “Cold” here, and in “Shoes”, and “Tongue”, have the correspondence in the diphthong, where Lolly has / ai / and Annie has / æi /.   

for AMP:  


Annie Miner Peterson’s Milluk

Exactly Jacobs’ transcription

Americanist Phonetic & IPA


[ ɢ̣æinæ ] 


[ ɢæinæ ]

The Phonemic Diphthong / æi /: In order to hear what the diphthong [ æi ] sounds like, listen to Lolly say the Milluk word meaning ‘mouth’ in the interview segments “Mouth 1” and “Mouth 2”.  She actually has a more formal and two slightly different more natural ways of saying that phonemic diphthong / æi /, as [ æi ] formally, and as [ ɛi ] and [ ei ] more naturally.  We get to hear Annie say this phonemic diphthong / æi / in the more natural way in the Milluk word / gwæis / ‘girl, young woman’, the many times that we hear her say it in passages of fluently spoken Milluk recorded phonographically in 1934, but we do not get to hear her say it in the more formal way that Lolly uses at the start of the interview segments “Mouth 1” and “Mouth 2”, exactly because those are passages of fluently spoken Milluk, not words said slowly and carefully.